Creating False Memories
Elizabeth F. Loftus
In 1986 Nadean Cool, a nurse's aide in Wisconsin, sought therapy from a psychiatrist to
help her cope with her reaction to a traumatic event experienced by her daughter. During
therapy, the psychiatrist used hypnosis and other suggestive techniques to dig out buried
memories of abuse that Cool herself had allegedly experienced. In the process, Cool became
convinced that she had repressed memories of having been in a satanic cult, of eating
babies, of being raped, of having sex with animals and of being forced to watch the murder
of her eight-year-old friend. She came to believe that she had more than 120
personalities-children, adults, angels and even a duck-all because, Cool was told, she had
experienced severe childhood sexual and physical abuse. The psychiatrist also performed
exorcisms on her, one of which lasted for five hours and included the sprinkling of holy
water and screams for Satan to leave Cool's body.
When Cool finally realized that false memories had been planted, she sued the psychiatrist
for malpractice. In March 1997, after five weeks of trial, her case was settled out of
court for $2.4 million. Nadean Cool is not the only patient to develop false memories as a
result of questionable therapy. In Missouri in 1992 a church counselor helped Beth
Rutherford to remember during therapy that her father, a clergyman, had regularly raped
her between the ages of seven and 14 and that her mother sometimes helped him by holding
her down. Under her therapist's guidance, Rutherford developed memories of her father
twice impregnating her and forcing her to abort the fetus herself with a coat hanger.The
father had to resign from his post as a clergyman when the allegations were made public.
Later medical examination of the daughter revealed, however, that she was still a virgin
at age 22 and had never been pregnant. The daughter sued the therapist and received a
$1-million settlement in 1996.
About a year earlier two juries returned verdicts against a Minnesota psychiatrist accused
of planting false memories by former patients Vynnette Hamanne and Elizabeth Carlson, who
under hypnosis and sodium amytal, and after being fed misinformation about the workings of
memory, had come to remember horrific abuse by family members. The juries awarded Hammane
$2.67 million and Carlson $2.5 million for their ordeals.
In all four cases, the women developed memories about childhood abuse in therapy and then
later denied their authenticity. How can we determine if memories of childhood abuse are
true or false? Without corroboration, it is very difficult to differentiate between false
memories and true ones. Also, in these cases, some memories were contrary to physical
evidence, such as explicit and detailed recollections of rape and abortion when medical
examination confirmed virginity. How is it possible for people to acquire elaborate and
confident false memories? A growing number of investigations demonstrate that under the
right circumstances false memories can be instilled rather easily in some people.
My own research into memory distortion goes back to the early 1970s, when I began studies
of the "misinformation effect." These studies show that when people who witness
an event are later exposed to new and misleading information about it, their recollections
often become distorted. In one example, participants viewed a simulated automobile
accident at an intersection with a stop sign. After the viewing, half the participants
received a suggestion that the traffic sign was a yield sign. When asked later what
traffic sign they remembered seeing at the intersection, those who had been given the
suggestion tended to claim that they had seen a yield sign. Those who had not received the
phony information were much more accurate in their recollection of the traffic sign.
My students and I have now conducted more than 200 experiments involving over 20,000
individuals that document how exposure to misinformation induces memory distortion. In
these studies, people "recalled" a conspicuous barn in a bucolic scene that
contained no buildings at all, broken glass and tape recorders that were not in the scenes
they viewed, a white instead of a blue vehicle in a crime scene, and Minnie Mouse when
they actually saw Mickey Mouse. Taken together, these studies show that misinformation can
change an individual's recollection in predictable and sometimes very powerful ways.
Misinformation has the potential for invading our memories when we talk to other people,
when we are suggestively interrogated or when we read or view media coverage about some
event that we may have experienced ourselves. After more than two decades of exploring the
power of misinformation, researchers have learned a great deal about the conditions that
make people susceptible to memory modification. Memories are more easily modified, for
instance, when the passage of time allows the original memory to fade.
False Childhood Memories
It is one thing to change a detail or two in an otherwise intact memory but quite
another to plant a false memory of an event that never happened. To study false memory, my
students and I first had to find a way to plant a pseudomemory that would not cause our
subjects undue emotional stress, either in the process of creating the false memory or
when we revealed that they had been intentionally deceived. Yet we wanted to try to plant
a memory that would be at least mildly traumatic, had the experience actually happened.
My research associate, Jacqueline E. Pickrell, and I settled on trying to plant a specific
memory of being lost in a shopping mall or large department store at about the age of
five. Here's how we did it. We asked our subjects, 24 individuals ranging in age from 18
to 53, to try to remember childhood events that had been recounted to us by a parent, an
older sibling or another close relative. We prepared a booklet for each participant
containing one-paragraph stories about three events that had actually happened to him or
her and one that had not. We constructed the false event using information about a
plausible shopping trip provided by a relative, who also verified that the participant had
not in fact been lost at about the age of five. The lost-in-the-mall scenario included the
following elements: lost for an extended period, crying, aid and comfort by an elderly
woman and, finally, reunion with the family.
After reading each story in the booklet, the participants wrote what they remembered
about the event. If they did not remember it, they were instructed to write, "I do
not remember this." In two follow-up interviews, we told the participants that we
were interested in examining how much detail they could remember and how their memories
compared with those of their relative. The event paragraphs were not read to them
verbatim, but rather parts were provided as retrieval cues. The participants recalled
something about 49 of the 72 true events (68 percent) immediately after the initial
reading of the booklet and also in each of the two follow-up interviews. After reading the
booklet, seven of the 24 participants (29 percent) remembered either partially or fully
the false event constructed for them, and in the two follow-up interviews six participants
(25 percent) continued to claim that they remembered the fictitious event. Statistically,
there were some differences between the true memories and the false ones: participants
used more words to describe the true memories, and they rated the true memories as being
somewhat more clear. But if an onlooker were to observe many of our participants describe
an event, it would be difficult indeed to tell whether the account was of a true or a
false memory. Of course, being lost, however frightening, is not the same as being abused.
But the lost-in-the-mall study is not about real experiences of being lost; it is about
planting false memories of being lost. The paradigm shows a way of instilling false
memories and takes a step toward allowing us to understand how this might happen in
real-world settings. Moreover, the study provides evidence that people can be led to
remember their past in different ways, and they can even be coaxed into
"remembering" entire events that never happened.
Studies in other laboratories using a similar experimental procedure have produced similar
results. For instance, Ira Hyman, Troy H. Husband and F. James Billing of Western
Washington University asked college students to recall childhood experiences that had been
recounted by their parents. The researchers told the students that the study was about how
people remember shared experiences differently. In addition to actual events reported by
parents, each participant was given one false event either an overnight hospitalization
for a high fever and a possible ear infection, or a birthday party with pizza and a clown
that supposedly happened at about the age of five. The parents confirmed that neither of
these events actually took place.
Hyman found that students fully or partially recalled 84 percent of the true events in
the first interview and 88 percent in the second interview. None of the participants
recalled the false event during the first interview, but 20 percent said they remembered
something about the false event in the second interview. One participant who had been
exposed to the emergency hospitalization story later remembered a male doctor, a female
nurse and a friend from church who came to visit at the hospital. In another study, along
with true events Hyman presented different false events, such as accidentally spilling a
bowl of punch on the parents of the bride at a wedding reception or having to evacuate a
grocery store when the overhead sprinkler systems erroneously activated. Again, none of
the participants recalled the false event during the first interview, but 18 percent
remembered something about it in the second interview. For example, during the first
interview, one participant, when asked about the fictitious wedding event, stated, "I
have no clue. I have never heard that one before." In the second interview, the
participant said, "It was an outdoor wedding, and I think we were running around and
knocked something over like the punch bowl or something and made a big mess and of course
got yelled at for it. "
The finding that an external suggestion can lead to the construction of false childhood
memories helps us understand the process by which false memories arise. It is natural to
wonder whether this research is applicable in real situations such as being interrogated
by law officers or in psychotherapy. Although strong suggestion may not routinely occur in
police questioning or therapy, suggestion in the form of an imagination exercise sometimes
does. For instance, when trying to obtain a confession, law officers may ask a suspect to
imagine having participated in a criminal act. Some mental health professionals encourage
patients to imagine childhood events as a way of recovering supposedly hidden memories.
Surveys of clinical psychologists reveal that 11 percent instruct their clients to
"let the imagination run wild," and 22 percent tell their clients to "give
free rein to the imagination." Therapist Wendy Maltz, author of a popular book on
childhood sexual abuse, advocates telling the patient: "Spend time imaging that you
were sexually abused, without worrying about accuracy proving anything, or having your
ideas make sense .... Ask yourself ... these questions: What time of day is it? Where are
you? Indoors or outdoors? What kind of things are happening? Is there one or more person
with you?" Maltz further recommends that therapists continue to ask questions such as
"Who would have been likely perpetrators? When were you most vulnerable to sexual
abuse in your life?"
The increasing use of such imagination exercises led me and several colleagues to wonder
about their consequences. What happens when people imagine childhood experiences that did
not happen to them? Does imagining a childhood event increase confidence that it occurred?
To explore this, we designed a three-stage procedure. We first asked individuals to
indicate the likelihood that certain events happened to them during their childhood. The
list contains 40 events, each rated on a scale ranging from "definitely did not
happen" to "definitely did happen." Two weeks later we asked the
participants to imagine that they had experienced some of these events. Different subjects
were asked to imagine different events. Sometime later the participants again were asked
to respond to the original list of 40 childhood events, indicating how likely it was that
these events actually happened to them. Consider one of the imagination exercises.
Participants are told to imagine playing inside at home after school, hearing a strange
noise outside, running toward the window, tripping, falling, reaching out and breaking the
window with their hand. In addition, we asked participants questions such as "What
did you trip on? How did you feel?" In one study 24 percent of the participants who
imagined the broken-window scenario later reported an increase in confidence that the
event had occurred, whereas only 12 percent of those who were not asked to imagine the
incident reported an increase in the likelihood that it had taken place. We found this
"imagination inflation" effect in each of the eight events that participants
were asked to imagine. A number of possible explanations come to mind. An obvious one is
that an act of imagination simply makes the event seem more familiar and that familiarity
is mistakenly related to childhood memories rather than to the act of imagination. Such
source confusion when a person does not remember the source of information can be
especially acute for the distant experiences of childhood.
Studies by Lyn Giff and Henry L. Roediger III of Washington University of recent rather
than childhood experiences more directly connect imagined actions to the construction of
false memory. During the initial session, the researchers instructed participants to
perform the stated action, imagine doing it or just listen to the statement and do nothing
else. The actions were simple ones: knock on the table, lift the stapler, break the
toothpick, cross your fingers, roll your eyes. During the second session, the participants
were asked to imagine some of the actions that they had not previously performed. During
the final session, they answered questions about what actions they actually performed
during the initial session. The investigators found that the more times participants
imagined an unperformed action, the more likely they were to remember having performed it.
It is highly unlikely that an adult can recall genuine episodic memories from the first
year of life, in part because the hippocampus, which plays a key role in the creation of
memories, has not matured enough to form and store longlasting memories that can be
retrieved in adulthood.
A procedure for planting "impossible" memories about experiences that occur
shortly after birth has been developed by the late Nicholas Spanos and his collaborators
at Carleton University. Individuals are led to believe that they have well-coordinated eye
movements and visual exploration skills probably because they were born in hospitals that
hung swinging, colored mobiles over infant cribs. To confirm whether they had such an
experience, half the participants are hypnotized, age-regressed to the day after birth and
asked what they remembered. The other half of the group participates in a "guided
mnemonic restructuring" procedure that uses age regression as well as active
encouragement to re-create the infant experiences by imagining them.. Spanos and his
co-workers found that the vast majority of their subjects were susceptible to these
memory-planting procedures. Both the hypnotic and guided participants reported infant
memories. Surprisingly, the guided group did so somewhat more (95 versus 70 percent). Both
groups remembered the colored mobile at a relatively high rate (56 percent of the guided
group and 46 percent of the hypnotic subjects). Many participants who did not remember the
mobile did recall other things, such as doctors, nurses, bright lights, cribs and masks.
Also, in both groups, of those who reported memories of infancy, 49 percent felt that they
were real memories, as opposed to 16 percent who claimed that they were merely fantasies.
These findings confirm earlier studies that many individuals can be led to construct
complex, vivid and detailed false memories via a rather simple procedure. Hypnosis clearly
is not necessary.
How False Memories Form
In the lost-in-the-mall study, implantation of false memory occurred when another
person, usually a family member, claimed that the incident happened. Corroboration of an
event by another person can be a powerful technique for instilling a false memory. In
fact, merely claiming to have seen a person do something can lead that person to make a
false confession of wrongdoing.
This effect was demonstrated in a study by Saul M. Kassin and his colleagues at Williams
College, who investigated the reactions of individuals falsely accused of damaging a
computer by pressing the wrong key. The innocent participants initially denied the charge,
but when a confederate said that she had seen them perform the action, many participants
signed a confession, internalized guilt for the act and went on to confabulate details
that were consistent with that belief. These findings show that false incriminating
evidence can induce people to accept guilt for a crime they did not commit and even to
develop memories to support their guilty feelings.
Research is beginning to give us an understanding of how false memories of complete,
emotional and self-participatory experiences are created in adults. First, there are
social demands on individuals to remember; for instance, researchers exert some pressure
on participants in a study to come up with memories. Second, memory construction by
imagining events can be explicitly encouraged when people are having trouble remembering.
And, finally, individuals can be encouraged not to think about whether their constructions
are real or not. Creation of false memories is most likely to occur when these external
factors are present, whether in an experimental setting, in a therapeutic setting or
during everyday activities.
False memories are constructed by combining actual memories with the content of
suggestions received from others. During the process, individuals may forget the source of
the information. This is a classic example of source confusion, in which the content and
the source become dissociated.
Of course, because we can implant false childhood memories in some individuals in no way
implies that all memories that arise after suggestion are necessarily false. Put another
way, although experimental work on the creation of false memories may raise doubt about
the validity of long-buried memories, such as repeated trauma, it in no way disproves
them. Without corroboration, there is little that can be done to help even the most
experienced evaluator to differentiate true memories from ones that were suggestively
The precise mechanisms by which such false memories are constructed await further
research. We still have much to learn about the degree of confidence and the
characteristics of false memories created in these ways, and we need to discover what
types of individuals are particularly susceptible to these forms of suggestion and who is
As we continue this work, it is important to heed the cautionary tale in the data we have
already obtained: mental health professionals and others must be aware of how greatly they
can influence the recollection of events and of the urgent need for maintaining restraint
in situations in which imagination is used as an aid in recovering presumably lost
ELIZABETH F. LOFTUS is professor of psychology and adjunct professor of law at the
University of Washington. She received her Ph.D. in psychology from Stanford University in
1970. Her research has focused on human memory, eyewitness testimony and courtroom
procedure. Loftus has published 18 books and more than 250 scientific articles and has
served as an expert witness or consultant in hundreds of trials, including the McMartin
preschool molestation case. Her book Eyewitness Testimony won a National Media Award from
the American Psychological Foundation. She has received honorary doctorates from Miami
University, Leiden University and John Jay College of Criminal Justice. Loftus was
recently elected president of the American Psychological Society.
THE MYTH OF REPRESSED MEMORY. Elizabeth F Loftus and Katherine Ketcham. St. Martin's
THE SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY OF FALSE CONFESSIONS: COMPLIANCE, INTER NALIZATION, AND
CONFABULATION. Saul M. Kassin and Katherine L. Kiechel in Psychological Science, Vol. 7,
NO. 3, pages 12S-128; May 1996.
IMAGINATION INFLATION: IMAGINING A CHILDHOOD EVENT INFLATES CONFIDENCE THAT IT OCCURRED.
Maryanne Carry, Charles G. Manning, Elizabeth F. Loftus and Steven J. Sherman in
Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, Vol. 3, NO. 2, pages 208-214; June 1996.
REMEMBERING OUR PAST: STUDIES IN AUTOBIOGRAPHICAL MEMORY. Edited by David C. Rubin.
Cambridge University Press, 1996.
SEARCHING FOR MEMORY: THE BRAIN, THE MIND, AND THE PAST. Daniel L. Schacter. BasicBooks,
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