In the time of Muhammad there was no theory of evolution to explain life. There was no big bang theory to explain the existence of material things. There was no concept of electricity. So when Muhammad in making his case for God said "who shows you the lighting" the only seemingly possible explanation was the one he made, God. The argument he made was for the existence of God but he often spoke as if God was speaking through him to convince people that he was God's prophet.
Act as if existence is evidence for God and therefore evidence That you are a Prophet
[13.7] And those who disbelieve say: Why has not a sign been sent down upon him from his Lord?…
13.12] He it is
Who shows you the lightning causing fear and hope and (Who) brings up the heavy
[13.13] And the thunder declares His glory with His praise, and the angels too for awe of Him; and He sends the thunderbolts and smites with them whom He pleases, yet they dispute concerning Allah, and He is mighty in prowess.
[15.19] And the earth-- We have
spread it forth and made in it firm mountains and caused to grow in it of every
[15.20] And We have made in it means of subsistence for you and for him for whom you are not the suppliers.
[15.21] And there is not a thing but with Us are the treasures of it, and We do not send it down but in a known measure.
[15.22] And We send the winds fertilizing, then send down water from the cloud so We give it to you to drink of, nor is it you who store it up.
[15.23] And most surely We bring to life and cause to die and We are the heirs.
[15.24] And certainly We know those of you who have gone before and We certainly know those who shall come later.
[15.25] And surely your Lord will gather them together; surely He is Wise, Knowing.
[15.26] And certainly We created man of clay that gives forth sound, of black mud fashioned in shape.
[15.27] And the jinn We created before, of intensely hot fire.
[16.12] And He has made subservient
for you the night and the day and the sun and the moon, and the stars are made
subservient by His commandment; most surely there are signs in this for a people
[16.13] And what He has created in the earth of varied hues most surely there is a sign in this for a people who are mindful.
[16.14] And He it is Who has made the sea subservient that you may eat fresh flesh from it and bring forth from it ornaments which you wear, and you see the ships cleaving through it, and that you might seek of His bounty and that you may give thanks.
[16.15] And He has cast great mountains in the earth lest it might be convulsed with you, and rivers and roads that you may go aright,
[16.16] And landmarks; and by the stars they find the right way.
[21.32] And We have made the heaven a
guarded canopy and (yet) they turn aside from its signs.
[21.33] And He it is Who created the night and the day and the sun and the moon; all (orbs) travel along swiftly in their celestial spheres.
[50.5] Nay, they rejected the truth
when it came to them, so they are (now) in a state of confusion.
[50.6] Do they not then look up to heaven above them how We have made it and adorned it and it has no gaps?
[50.7] And the earth, We have made it plain and cast in it mountains and We have made to grow therein of all beautiful kinds,
[50.8] To give sight and as a reminder to every servant who turns frequently (to Allah).
[50.9] And We send down from the cloud water abounding in good, then We cause to grow thereby gardens and the grain that is reaped,
[50.10] And the tall palm-trees having spadices closely set one above another,
[50.11] A sustenance for the servants, and We give life thereby to a dead land; thus is the rising.
[55.1] The Beneficent God,
[55.2] Taught the Quran.
[55.3] He created man,
[55.4] Taught him the mode of expression.
[55.5] The sun and the moon follow a reckoning.
[55.6] And the herbs and the trees do adore (Him).
[55.7] And the heaven, He raised it high, and He made the balance
[55.8] That you may not be inordinate in respect of the measure.
[55.9] And keep up the balance with equity and do not make the measure deficient.
[55.10] And the earth, He has set it for living creatures;
[55.11] Therein is fruit and palms having sheathed clusters,
[55.12] And the grain with (its) husk and fragrance.
[55.13] Which then of the bounties of your Lord will you deny?
[55.14] He created man from dry clay like earthen vessels,
[55.15] And He created the jinn of a flame of fire.
[55.16] Which then of the bounties of your Lord will you deny?
[55.17] Lord of the East and Lord of the West.
[55.18] Which then of the bounties of your Lord will you deny?
[55.19] .He has made the two seas to flow freely (so that) they meet together:
[55.20] Between them is a barrier which they cannot pass.
[55.21] Which then of the bounties of your Lord will you deny?
[55.22] There come forth from them pearls, both large and small.
[55.23] Which then of the bounties of your Lord will you deny?
[55.24] And His are the ships reared aloft in the sea like mountains.
[55.25] Which then of the bounties of your Lord will you deny?
[55.26] Everyone on it must pass away.
[55.27] And there will endure for ever the person of your Lord, the Lord of glory and honor.
[55.28] Which then of the bounties of your Lord will you deny?
[55.29] All those who are in the heavens and the earth ask of Him; every moment He is in a state (of glory).
[55.30] Which then of the bounties of your Lord will you deny?
[55.31] Soon will We apply Ourselves to you, O you two armies.
[55.32] Which then of the bounties of your Lord will you deny?
[55.33] O assembly of the jinn and the men! If you are able to pass through the regions of the heavens and the earth, then pass through; you cannot pass through but with authority.
[55.34] Which then of the bounties of your Lord will you deny?
[55.35] The flames of fire and smoke will be sent on you two, then you will not be able to defend yourselves.
[55.36] Which then of the bounties of your Lord will you deny?
[55.37] And when the heaven is rent asunder, and then becomes red like red hide.
[55.38] Which then of the bounties of your Lord will you deny?
[55.39] So on that day neither man nor jinni shall be asked about his sin.
[55.40] Which then of the bounties of your Lord will you deny?
[55.41] The guilty shall be recognized by their marks, so they shall be seized by the forelocks and the feet.
[55.42] Which then of the bounties of your Lord will you deny?
[55.43] This is the hell which the guilty called a lie.
[55.44] Round about shall they go between it and hot, boiling water.
[55.45] Which then of the bounties of your Lord will you deny?
they not seen the birds above them expanding (their wings) and contracting
(them)? What is it that withholds them save the Beneficent God? Surely He sees
Dealing with Skeptics Who Say Why Don't you Perform a Miracle
[15.6] And they
say: O you to whom the Reminder has been revealed! you are most surely insane:
[15.7] Why do you not bring to us the angels if you are of the truthful ones?
[15.8] We do not send the angels but with truth, and then they would not be respited.
[15.9] Surely We have revealed the Reminder and We will most surely be its guardian.
[15.10] And certainly We sent (apostles) before you among the nations of yore.
[15.11] And there never came an apostle to them but they mocked him….
[15.14] And even if We open to them a gateway of heaven, so that they ascend into it all the while,
[15.15] They would certainly say: Only our eyes.have been covered over, rather we are an enchanted people.
[17.90] And they
say: We will by no means believe in you until you cause a fountain to gush forth
from the earth for us.
[17.91] Or you should have a garden of palms and grapes in the midst of which you should cause rivers to flow forth, gushing out.
[17.92] Or you should cause the heaven to come down upon us in pieces as you think, or bring Allah and the angels face to face (with us).
[17.93] Or you should have a house of gold, or you should ascend into heaven, and we will not believe in your ascending until you bring down to us a book which we may read. Say: Glory be to my Lord; am I aught but a mortal apostle?
[17.94] And nothing prevented people from believing when the guidance came to them except that they said: What! has Allah raised up a mortal to be an apostle?
[17.95] Say: Had there been in the earth angels walking about as settlers, We would certainly have sent down to them from the heaven an angel as an apostle.
[17.96] Say: Allah suffices as a witness between me and you; surely He is Aware of His servants, Seeing.
[17.97] And whomsoever Allah guides, he is the follower of the right way, and whomsoever He causes to err, you shall not find for him guardians besides Him; and We will gather them together on the day of resurrection on their faces, blind and dumb and deaf; their abode is hell; whenever it becomes allayed We will add to their burning.
[17.98] This is their retribution because they disbelieved in Our communications and said What! when we shall have become bones and decayed particles, shall we then indeed be raised up into a new creation?
[17.99] Do they not consider that Allah, Who created the heavens and the earth, is able to create their like, and He has appointed for them a doom about which there is no doubt? But the unjust do not consent to aught but denying.
[17.101] And certainly We gave Musa
nine clear signs; so ask the children of Israel. When he came to them, Firon
said to him: Most surely I deem you, O Musa, to be a man deprived of reason.
[17.102] He said: Truly you know that none but the Lord of the heavens and the earth has sent down these as clear proof and most surely I believe you, O Firon, to be given over to perdition.
[17.103] So he desired to destroy them out of the earth, but We drowned him and those with him all together;
[17.104] And We said to the Israelites after him: Dwell in the land: and when the promise of the next life shall come to pass, we will bring you both together in judgment.
[17.47] We know best what they
listen to when they listen to you, and when they take counsel secretly, when the
unjust say: You follow only a man deprived of reason.
[17.48] See what they liken you to! So they have gone astray and cannot find the way.
[17.49] And they say: What! when we shall have become bones and decayed particles, shall we then certainly be raised up, being a new creation?
[17.50] Say: Become stones or iron,
[17.51] Or some other creature of those which are too hard (to receive life) in your minds! But they will say: Who will return us? Say: Who created you at first. Still they will shake their heads at you and say: When will it be? Say: Maybe it has drawn nigh.
[25.7] And they say: What is the matter with this Apostle that he eats food and goes about in the markets; why has not an angel been sent down to him, so that he should have been a warner with him?
[25.21] And those who do not hope for
Our meeting, say: Why have not angels been sent down upon us, or (why) do we not
see our Lord? Now certainly they are too proud of themselves and have revolted
in great revolt.
[25.22] On the day when they shall see the angels, there shall be no joy on that day for the guilty, and they shall say: It is a forbidden thing totally prohibited.
[25.23] And We will proceed to what they have done of deeds, so We shall render them as scattered floating dust.
[25.24] The dwellers of the garden shall on that day be in a better abiding-place and a better resting-place.
[25.25] And on the day when the heaven shall burst asunder with the clouds, and the angels shall be sent down descending (in ranks).
[25.26] The kingdom on that day shall rightly belong to the Beneficent God, and a hard day shall it be for the unbelievers.
[25.27] And the day when the unjust one shall bite his hands saying: O! would that I had taken a way with the Apostle
[25.28] O woe is me! would that I had not taken such a one for a friend !
[30.20] And one of His signs is that He
created you from dust, then lo! you are mortals (who) scatter.
[30.21] And one of His signs is that He created mates for you from yourselves that you may find rest in them, and He put between you love and compassion; most surely there are signs in this for a people who reflect.
[30.22] And one of His signs is the creation of the heavens and the earth and the diversity of your tongues and colors; most surely there are signs in this for the learned.
[30.23] And one of His signs is your sleeping and your seeking of His grace by night and (by) day; most surely there are signs in this for a people who would hear.
[30.24] And one of His signs is that He shows you the lightning for fear and for hope, and sends down water from the clouds then gives life therewith to the earth after its death; most surely there are signs in this for a people who understand
[30.25] And one of His signs is that the heaven and the earth subsist by His command, then when He calls you with a (single) call from out of the earth, lo! you come forth.
[45.3] Most surely in the heavens and
the earth there are signs for the believers.
[45.4] And in your (own) creation and in what He spreads abroad of animals there are signs for a people that are sure;
[45.5] And (in) the variation of the night and the day, and (in) what Allah sends down of sustenance from the cloud, then gives life thereby to the earth after its death, and (in) the changing of the winds, there are signs for a people who understand.
[45.12] Allah is He Who made
subservient to you the sea that the ships may run therein by His command, and
that you may seek of His grace, and that you may give thanks.
[45.13] And He has made subservient to you whatsoever is in the heavens and whatsoever is in the earth, all, from Himself; most surely there are signs in this for a people who reflect.
[45.24] And they say: There is
nothing but our life in this world; we live and die and nothing destroys us but
time, and they have no knowledge of that; they only conjecture.
[45.25] And when Our clear communications are recited to them, their argument is no other than that they say: Bring our fathers (back) if you are truthful.
[45.26] Say: Allah gives you life, then He makes you die, then will He gather you to the day of resurrection wherein is no doubt, but most people do not know.
[45.27] And Allah's is the kingdom of the heavens and the earth; and on the day when the hour shall come to pass, on that day shall they perish who say false things.
[45.28] And you shall see every nation kneeling down; every nation shall be called to its book: today you shall be rewarded for what you did.
(Notice how the Koran says that the people who say there is no afterlife are conjecturing when saying there is an afterlife is a conjecture.)
Dealing with the Question of Why some people don't believe
[14.1] Alif Lam Ra. (This is) a Book which We have revealed to you that you may bring forth men, by their Lord's permission from utter darkness into light-- to the way of the Mighty, the Praised One,
[16.105] Only they forge the lie who do not believe in Allah's communications, and these are the liars.
[27.4] As to those who do not believe in the hereafter, We have surely made their deeds fair-seeming to them, but they blindly wander on.
[42.7] And thus have We revealed to
you an Arabic Quran, that you may warn the mother city and those around it, and
that you may give warning of the day of gathering together wherein is no doubt;
a party shall be in the garden and (another) party in the burning fire.
[42.8] And if Allah had pleased He would surely have made them a single community, but He makes whom He pleases enter into His mercy, and the unjust it is that shall have no guardian or helper.
Dealing with the Question of Why Some People Who Don't Believe Live Well
[31.23] And whoever disbelieves, let
not his disbelief grieve you; to Us is their return, then will We inform them of
what they did surely Allah is the Knower of what is in the breasts.
[31.24] We give them to enjoy a little, then will We drive them to a severe chastisement
[37.12] Nay! you wonder while they
[37.13] And when they are reminded, they mind not,
[37.14] And when they see a sign they incite one another to scoff,
[37.15] And they say: This is nothing but clear magic:
[37.16] What! when we are dead and have become dust and bones, shall we then certainly be raised,
[37.17] Or our fathers of yore?
[37.18] Say: Aye! and you shall be abject.
[37.19] So it shall only be a single cry, when lo! they shall see.
[37.20] And they shall say: O woe to us! this is the day of requital.
[37.21] This is the day of the judgment which you called a lie.
[37.22] Gather together those who were unjust and their associates, and what they used to worship
[37.23] Besides Allah, then lead them to the way to hell.
[37.24] And stop them, for they shall be questioned:
[37.25] What is the matter with you that you do not help each other?
[37.26] Nay! on that day they shall be submissive.
[37.27] And some of them shall advance towards others, questioning each other.
[37.28] They shall say: Surely you used to come to us from the right side.
[37.29] They shall say: Nay, you (yourselves) were not believers;
[37.30] And we had no authority over you, but you were an inordinate people;
[37.31] So the sentence of our Lord has come to pass against us: (now) we shall surely taste;
[37.32] So we led you astray, for we ourselves were erring.
[37.33] So they shall on that day be sharers in the chastisement one with another.
[37.34] Surely thus do We deal with the guilty.
[37.35] Surely they used to behave proudly when it was said to them: There is no god but Allah;
[37.36] And to say: What! shall we indeed give up our gods for the sake of a mad poet?
[37.37] Nay: he has come with the truth and verified the apostles.
[37.38] Most surely you will taste the painful punishment.
[37.39] And you shall not be rewarded except (for) what you did.
[37.40] Save the servants of Allah, the purified ones.
[37.41] For them is a known sustenance,
[37.42] Fruits, and they shall be highly honored,
[37.43] In gardens of pleasure,
[37.44] On thrones, facing each other.
[37.45] A bowl shall be made to go round them from water running out of springs,
[37.46] White, delicious to those who drink.
[52.33] Or do they say: He has forged
it. Nay! they do not believe.
[52.34] Then let them bring an announcement like it if they are truthful.
[52.35] Or were they created without there being anything, or are they the creators?
[52.36] Or did they create the heavens and the earth? Nay! they have no certainty.
[52.37] Or have they the treasures of your Lord with them? Or have they been set in absolute authority?
[52.38] Or have they the means by which they listen? Then let their listener bring a clear authority.
[52.39] Or has He daughters while you have sons?
[52.40] Or do you ask them for a reward, so that they are overburdened by a debt?
[52.41] Or have they the unseen so that they write (it) down?
[52.42] Or do they desire a war? But those who disbelieve shall be the vanquished ones in war.
[52.43] Or have they a god other than Allah? Glory be to Allah from what they set up (with Him).
[52.44] And if they should see a portion of the heaven coming down, they would say: Piled up clouds.
[52.45] Leave them then till they meet that day of theirs wherein they shall be made to swoon (with terror):
[52.46] The day on which their struggle shall not avail them aught, nor shall they be helped.
[52.47] And surely those who are unjust shall have a punishment besides that (in the world), but most of them do not know.